Delhi, being the national capital of India, is likely to be focus of development in terms of social and economic progress. Delhi stands for ancient cultural and human values of India, it is essential for India to place its national capital in line with other renowned cities of the world. Master Plan Delhi 2012 has been designed to make the city growth driver for the Indian economy as well as center for innovation, business, education and culture. In order to be competitive in race amongst other cities of India (such as Mumbai, Bangalore etc) Delhi must take lead in infrastructure development at a significant pace to target investments from the world.
The cornerstone for any development, at this scale and critical mass has to be the planning and the tracking of the implementation. Every agency involved, be it the governmental agencies, the private institutions, the corporate houses, the NGOs, the services – both urban, rural, tertiary & local have to have one beacon of policy guideline bestowing them to a common direction.
Key to any such development which is worth billions of dollar at such a gigantic scale is meticulous planning and implementation of the plan. There has to be one single beacon, for policy on rules and guidelines, when such a large scale multilateral development is taking place which also involves government agencies, private sectors, corporate sectors, Non Government Organization.
For India, Delhi has to be state-of-art city with high-tech infrastructure.
MPD 2021 envisages Delhi to be a global metropolis and one of the world class cities, Master Plan Delhi 2021 is guiding force for framework, implementation and formulation. A ‘Collective objective’ of MPD 2021 is to develop a socioeconomic environment that would help people to have best livelihood resources for better and healthier life. An action plan is needed to meet objectives such as housing for growing population, particularly affordable homes for mid-income family; resources for enterprises, specifically for small or micro enterprises; provision for addressing problems of slums; replacing or upgrading shabby parts of the city; tuning up with environment and integrating modern complexes and infrastructure.
10 years after independence an act – Delhi Development Act 1957- was passed for the well organized and well planned development of Delhi. The act has 60 sections and 12 sub-sections. Since the enactment of law, three master plans have been executed namely; MPD 1962, MPD 2001 and MPD 2021.
According to provision in section 3 of the law, a pivotal government authority shall be created by Central Government by notification in Official Gazette. This authority is known as Delhi Development Authority. DDA is responsible for outlining plans for development of National capital of India.
MPD 1962 was first developmental plan laid down by DDA with the help of experts from Ford Foundation for development in next 20 years. MPD 1962 was for overall development of Delhi. The plan helped realize development agenda of the city which resulted in development of livelihood resources by acquisition of big land. Involvements of private business groups were not realized as it was beginning the END of License Raj and early stage of growth. All the aspects of development were formulated keeping Public sector in mind and private sector had negligible role.
Learning from experience gained from implementation of MPD 1962 an in-house team of DDA developed another master plan for development till 2001. The team made changes to DD Act 1957 as per section 11-A, and the Master Plan Delhi 2001 was promulgated. This master plan was integrated development model for catering housing demand of rising population and new requirements of the City.
Master Plan Delhi 2001 had estimated population growth 1cr 28 lacs once the development outlined in the MPD 2001 is implemented. The development work as per MPD 2001 instead attracted 1 cr 38 lacs people to the national capital of India.
Some of these above issues were raised and considered as directions for the policy guidelines for the Delhi master plan 2021, as below:
Some learning points derived from the experience of MPD 2001 were taken into consideration for devising policy and guidelines for Master Plan Delhi 2021.
Revision and study of large acquisition and development scheme and figure out its relevancy at present.
Other ways to develop areas chosen for development in MPD 2021
Designing a framework that facilitate parallel run for planning and basic infrastructure.
Getting private sector involved for land development and providing infrastructure services.
Problem of unorganized growth of unauthorized slum was considered and identified as a challenge for inclusive growth. A need was realized to address this issue for prospective growth of the city.
Steep rise in traffic in national capital along with other similar issues such as parking space, air quality (pollution), safety & security were deliberated in MPD 2021.
Complex issues such as further development of congested urbanized areas of the city are also a part of MPD 2021.
Four key points in MPD 2021 that will steer the growth and development of Delhi are: